InnateDB Innate Immunity Genes

Aside from annotating innate immunity interactions and pathways, the InnateDB curation team has also established a project to annotate genes that have a role in the innate immune response. This has been initiated in response to the fact that Gene Ontology annotation of the innate immune response is quite limited in the numbers of genes which have been identified and in response to the fact that many users have been eager to have a defined list of innate immune genes. For innate immune gene annotation, curators employ a new tool in the InnateDB curation system to associate relevant genes with publications which provide evidence for that gene having a role in innate immunity. Along with the link to the relevant publication(s), the curators provide a one-line summary of the role similar to Entrez GeneRIFs. Such genes are also automatically associated with the Gene Ontology term "innate immune response" in InnateDB, which provides a more comprehensive list of these genes for use in the InnateDB Gene Ontology over-representation analysis tool. To date, 1642 genes have been annotated to some extent (as this is an on-going process). It should be noted that it is not the intention of InnateDB to comprehensively annotate all the roles of a given gene, but rather to provide a brief indication if a gene has a role in innate immunity. You can download all InnateDB curated genes with their annotations as Excel sheet.

This list provides details of the 2257 genes which have been annotated by either InnateDB or Gene Ontology as having a role in the innate immune response and is updated weekly.

Review the latest annotations: Download View all
Gene name Annotation Added
IRF7 (Homo sapiens) PubMed 19152337: IRF7 increases the expression of a broad range of IFN-stimulated genes including immunomodulatory cytokines and genes involved in antigen processing and presentation.
PubMed 15664995: IRF7 is activated in response to virus infection and stimulates the transcription of a set of cellular genes involved in host antiviral defence.
PubMed 15361868: IRF7 forms a complex with MYD88 and TRAF6 and this complex formation, as well as TRAF6-dependent IRF7 ubiquitination, is required for TLR-mediated interferon (IFN)-alpha induction.
PubMed 21820332: IRF7 is involved in the innate immune recognition of Plasmodium falciparum AT-rich DNA and in the subsequent induction of type I IFNs. Mice lacking Irf3/Irf7 are resistant to otherwise lethal cerebral malaria. (Demonstrated in mouse)
PubMed 25505178: Coronavirus engages papain-like proteases to escape from the innate antiviral response of the host by inhibiting TP53-IRF7-IFNB1 signalling.
PubMed 25520509: Paramyxoviruses trigger the DNA-damage response, a pathway required for RPS6KA5 activation of phospho Ser 276 RELA formation to trigger the IRF7-DDX58 amplification loop necessary for mucosal interferon production.
PubMed 25911105: AIP is a novel inhibitor of IRF7 and a negative regulator of innate antiviral signalling.
2016-01-25
CEACAM8 (Homo sapiens) PubMed 26176669: Staphylococcus aureus-induced neutrophil dysfunction correlates with the loss of C5AR1 from the neutrophil cell surface and results in C5a (C5)-induced CEACAM8 overexpression.
2016-01-25
C5AR1 (Homo sapiens) PubMed 20159852: C5AR1 engage in crosstalk with TLR2 and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major oral and systemic pathogen with complement C5 convertase-like activity, synergizes with C5a (fragment of complement protein C5) to increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations, resulting in suppression of macrophage immune function and enhanced pathogen survival.
PubMed 20457757: C5AR1 is a receptor for C5a, a chief component of complement activation produced via all three complement pathways (i.e., lectin, classical, and alternative), stimulated tissue-resident macrophages, but not dendritic cells, to produce inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, in synergy with Toll-like receptor signalling or, notably, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
PubMed 23479227: Increasing circulating C5AR1 serum concentration, coupled with decreased C5AR1 expression on neutrophils is correlated with lethality from septic shock.
PubMed 26176669: Staphylococcus aureus-induced neutrophil dysfunction correlates with the loss of C5AR1 from the neutrophil cell surface and results in C5a (C5)-induced CEACAM8 overexpression.
2016-01-25
AIP (Homo sapiens) PubMed 25911105: AIP is a novel inhibitor of IRF7 and a negative regulator of innate antiviral signalling.
2016-01-25
IL1B (Homo sapiens) PubMed 20195505: IL1B is an important proinflammatory cytokine that activates monocytes, macropages, and neutrophils. IL1B processing during infection is a complex process in which the inflammasomes are only one of several activation mechanisms.
PubMed 20401526: Mature IL1B production requires, in addition to the synthesis of pro-IL1B, cleavage of the precursor protein by the inflammatory CASP1 (Caspase-1) which is controlled within the NLRP3 inflammasome.
PubMed 20620944: IL1B-producing conventional dendritic cells preserves and expands IL-22(+)AHR(+) immature human natural killer cells in the secondary lymphoid tissue.
PubMed 21170027: IL1B acts as a growth factor for neutrophil progenitors and as a survival factor for mature neutrophils. In the absence of IKBKB, the IL1B production is enhanced and provides a compensatory mechanism for maintaining antibacterial defense when NFKB is inhibited. (Demonstrated in murine model)
PubMed 21228274: IL1B secretion in macrophages is regulated by autophagy by two mechanisms; sequestering of pro-IL1B in autophagosome during TLR stimulation, and processing,secretion of IL1B in a NLRP3- and TRIF-dependent manner.
PubMed 21602824: IL1B secretion is induced only during viable E. coli infection (as oppose to heat-killed E. coli or LPS); Viable bacteria specifically elicit cleavage of pro-IL1B. (Demonstrated in murine model)
PubMed 21270399: IL1B derived from alveolar macrophages is the critical mediator which induces chemokine production in non-hematopoietic cells in the lung, resulting in swift and robust recruitment of infection-controlling neutrophils into the airways. (Demonstrated in murine model)
PubMed 21628463: IL1B secretion is tightly regulated by the redox status in myeloid cells. TLR engagement in monocytes induces ROS generation followed by a sustained antioxidant response and efficient IL1B secretion. In macrophages, the antioxidant systems are in an upregulated state, and therefore buffers the TLR induction of the redox response, which results in low IL1B processing and secretion.
PubMed 22158745: IL1B is an important component of the cellular network involving macrophages and epithelial cells, which facilitates IL8 chemokine expression and aids neutrophil recruitment during pneumococcal pneumonia.
PubMed 22426547: IL1B is an inflammatory cytokine that binds to its primary receptor, IL1R1, that then recruits the accessory protein IL1RAP to form a signalling-competent heterotrimeric complex.
PubMed 24277153: TLR8 plays a pathogenic role in disease whereby its expression is increased in patients with systemic arthritis and is correlated with the elevation of IL1B levels and disease status.
PubMed 24323452: Protein-bound polysaccharide-K can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and induce IL1B in a TLR2- and NLRP3-dependent manner.
PubMed 25463072: Interleukin-1 (IL1A/IL1B) plays a key role in the interaction between local vessel wall cells and invading monocytes to multiply cholesterol-triggered inflammation in the vessel wall.
PubMed 25474109: IFNG interferes with the IL-1/NFKBIZ axis in β-glucan-activated dendritic cells and promotes T cell-mediated immune responses with increased release of IFNG and IL22, and diminished production of IL17A.
PubMed 25964352: CASP4 is a critical regulator of noncanonical inflammasome activation that initiates defence against bacterial pathogens in primary macrophages by mediating cell death and IL1A release
PubMed 25637949: DEFB103A and RNASE7 are induced in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) by classical inflammatory cytokines such as: IFNG, IL1B and TNF.
PubMed 26032420: Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) elevates mature IL1B secretion via SYK signalling pathway in primary monocytes.
2016-01-25
SYK (Homo sapiens) PubMed 26032420: Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) elevates mature IL1B secretion via SYK signalling pathway in primary monocytes.
2016-01-25
C5 (Homo sapiens) PubMed 18039528: C5 is the fifth component of complement and is comprised of alpha (C5a) and beta (C5b) polypeptide chains, C5a is a complement anaphylatoxin that can stimulate the generation of nitric oxide along with the secretion of histamine and leukotriene LTC4 from several cell types and can bring about an increase in vascular permeability that facilitates eosinophil accumulation at sites of allergic inflammation.
PubMed 10441679: C5 is the fifth component of complement and is comprised of alpha (C5a) and beta (C5b) polypeptide chains. C5b first associates with complement component 6 (C6), which in turn initiates the assembly of the cytolytic membrane attack complex (MAC).
PubMed 21063021: C5 fragments are released from neutrophils upon their activation of the alternative complement pathway and this further amplifies neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.
PubMed 25539819: C5 (C5a) is a critical mediator in blood during Candida albicans infection.
PubMed 26176669: Staphylococcus aureus-induced neutrophil dysfunction correlates with the loss of C5AR1 from the neutrophil cell surface and results in C5a (C5)-induced CEACAM8 overexpression.
2016-01-25
Il7 (Mus musculus) PubMed 26034215: Il7 is produced by intestinal epithelial cells in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection and plays a critical role in the protective immunity against this intestinal attaching and effacing bacterium.
2016-01-25
Ddx58 (Mus musculus) PubMed 19936053: Ddx58 (Rig-I) is responsible for the cytosolic recognition of Legionella pneumophila RNA and the subsequent induction of type I IFN response.
PubMed 21690088: Ddx58 and Nod2 colocalize to cellular ruffles and cell-cell junctions to form a protein complex via the CARD domains. Ddx58 negatively regulates ligand-induced NFkB signalling mediated by Nod2, and conversely, Nod2 negatively regulates type I interferon induction by Ddx58. (Demonstrated in human)
PubMed 21695051: Ddx58, through the TRAIL pathway, initiates apoptosis in hepatocytes infected with hepatitis C Virus. HCV envelope proteins counteract the antiviral host defence by inhibiting the expression of Ddx58. (Demonstrated in human)
PubMed 22072774: Ddx58 (RIG-I) ubiquitination is inhibited by arterivirus and nairovirus deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), resulting in the inhibition of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated innate immune signalling.
PubMed 22912779: Antiviral stress granules containing Ddx58 (RIG-I) and Eif2ak2 (PKR) have a critical role in viral detection and innate immunity.
PubMed 23064150: DDX58 (RIG-I) detects cytosolic Listeria monocytogenes infections by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids.
PubMed 23553835: Ddx58 (RIG-I) is a positive regulator of NF-kB signalling via binding to Nfkb1 mRNA.
PubMed 23966395: Ddx58 and Ifih1 are essential pattern recognition receptors for protection against West Nile virus infection in vivo.
PubMed 24692634: Ddx58 preferentially binds to coding RNA from S. Typhimurium during infection leading to the expression of IFN beta andthis immunostimulatory activity depends on 5? triphosphorylation of RNA.
PubMed 26074083: Ddx58 is the primary pattern recognition receptor (PRR) for influenza A virus (IAV), but Ifih1 is a significant contributor to the cellular defense against IAV.
PubMed 26146945: Ddx58 acts in parallel with Zbp1 in an RNA polymerase III-dependent manner to initiate glial responses to herpes simplex virus-1.
2016-01-25
Dusp1 (Mus musculus) PubMed 21959016: Dusp1 is a negative regulator of MAPK-dependent induction of Il6 and Il8 in response to the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). (Demonstrated in human)
PubMed 22464096: Dusp1 antagonizes p38 MAPK activity to induce Il12b expression, and may play a role in the development of Th1 type immune response and anti-microbial defence.
PubMed 26019272: Dusp1 modulates the phosphorylation status of mRNA-destabilizing protein Zfp36 to regulate macrophage immune response to lipopolysaccharide.
2016-01-25
Lcp2 (Mus musculus) PubMed 25929249: Lcp2 is a critical determinant of natural killer (NK)-cell development and NK cell mediated elimination of missing-self target cells.
2016-01-25
Zfp36 (Mus musculus) PubMed 26019272: Dusp1 modulates the phosphorylation status of mRNA-destabilizing protein Zfp36 to regulate macrophage immune response to lipopolysaccharide.
2016-01-25
Cd47 (Mus musculus) PubMed 26010544: Cd47 plays a protective role against disseminated candidiasis and alters pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways known to regulate innate and T cell immunity.
2016-01-25
S100a8 (Mus musculus) PubMed 21239714: S100a8 forms a complex with S100a9 and the complex is the site of interplay between extracellular Ca(2+) entry and intra-phagosomal reactive oxygen species production. S100A8 :: S100A9 acts as Ca(2+) sensor in phagosomal ROS production.
PubMed 22423963: S100a8 is strongly upregulated in neutrophils upon bacterial infection, and sequesters zinc as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. Salmonella typhimurium overcomes this defence mechanism by expressing a high affinity zinc transporter.
PubMed 23133376: S100A8 forms a heterodimer with S100A9 and is a key player in protective innate immunity during Klebsiella pneumonia infection.
PubMed 25911757: S100a8/S100a9 are proinflammatory proteins that activate natural killer cells via Ager signalling.
2016-01-25
S100a9 (Mus musculus) PubMed 21239714: S100a9 forms a complex with S100a8 and the complex is the site of interplay between extracellular Ca(2+) entry and intra-phagosomal reactive oxygen species production. S100a8 :: S100a9 acts as Ca(2+) sensor in phagosomal ROS production.
PubMed 21382888: S100a9-deficient murine neutrophils exhibited a reduce secretion of cytokines in response to Tlr4 stimulation. In contrast, S100a9-deficient dendritic cells showed an exacerbated release of cytokines after TLR stimulation. S100a9 has no effect on the inflammatory status of macrophages.
PubMed 22423963: S100a9 is strongly upregulated in neutrophils upon bacterial infection, and sequesters zinc as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. Salmonella typhimurium overcomes this defence mechanism by expressing a high affinity zinc transporter.
PubMed 23133376: S100A9 forms a heterodimer with S100A8 and is a key player in protective innate immunity during Klebsiella pneumonia infection.
PubMed 25911757: S100a8/S100a9 are proinflammatory proteins that activate natural killer cells via Ager signalling.
2016-01-25
Ager (Mus musculus) PubMed 22386596: Ager is a native receptor for complement component C1qa. (Demonstrated in human)
PubMed 25911757: S100a8/S100a9 are proinflammatory proteins that activate natural killer cells via Ager signalling.
2016-01-25
Nfkb2 (Mus musculus) PubMed 26026270: Bacterial cell wall glucosaminyl-muramyl dipeptides (GMDPs) bind to the transcription factor Ybx1 to upregulate Nfkb2 and Cxcr4 gene expression.
2016-01-25
Ybx1 (Mus musculus) PubMed 25398005: Ybx1 controls intracellular Il6 mRNA levels in a cell type-specific manner, leading to functions that are dependent on the extracellular and intracellular distribution of Ybx1.
PubMed 26026270: Bacterial cell wall glucosaminyl-muramyl dipeptides (GMDPs) bind to the transcription factor Ybx1 to upregulate Nfkb2 and Cxcr4 gene expression.
2016-01-25
Cxcr4 (Mus musculus) PubMed 26026270: Bacterial cell wall glucosaminyl-muramyl dipeptides (GMDPs) bind to the transcription factor Ybx1 to upregulate Nfkb2 and Cxcr4 gene expression.
2016-01-25
Hs2st1 (Mus musculus) PubMed 26150541: Inactivation of Hs2st1 in neutrophils substantially reduces their bactericidal activity, and Hs2st1-deficient mice are more susceptible to systemic infection with the pathogenic bacterium group B Streptococcus.
2016-01-25